July 5, 2024

Forever hidden? The history and impact of forever chemicals (PFAS) in firefighter gear

Forever hidden? The history and impact of forever chemicals (PFAS) in firefighter gear

Many chemicals follow a well-known path from being labeled the latest miracle substance to being viewed as a deadly toxin. PFAS is no exception.

For decades, PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) have been heralded as a miracle of modern chemistry, only for this sentiment to be eclipsed by concerns over their impact on human health and the environment. These compounds, renowned for their durability and resistance to heat, water, and oil, found their way into numerous products, from non-stick cookware to waterproof clothing. However, one of the most crucial, yet under-discussed, applications has been their use in firefighting gear. This article delves into the brief but significant history of PFAS, focusing on how these chemicals became a mainstay in firefighting equipment and the unfolding repercussions.

The Dawn of PFAS

PFAS chemicals made their debut on the industrial scene in the 1930s and 1940s, when they were first synthesized by major corporations like 3M and DuPont. These substances displayed a unique set of properties, including robustness against degradation, which made them highly desirable for various applications. Initially used in the manufacturing of products like Teflon, PFAS's resistance to heat and chemical reactions soon caught the attention of industries that dealt with extreme conditions, notably, the firefighting sector.

The Firefighting Connection

By the 1960s, PFAS began to be incorporated into firefighting foams, known as aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs). These foams were vital in combating liquid fuel fires, which couldn't be extinguished by water alone. AFFFs, laced with PFAS, were effective in quickly smothering fires, preventing re-ignition by creating a barrier between the fuel and oxygen. Given the success in emergency situations, particularly in military contexts, the use of PFAS-infused foams became a standard approach globally. 

However, the application of P FAS in firefighting didn't stop at foams. By the late 20th century, the material's heat-resistant quality led to its incorporation into firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE). Gear such as jackets, trousers, gloves, and boots were manufactured using fabrics treated with PFAS to provide protection against extreme heat and chemical exposure, a testament to the compounds' versatility.

Unfolding Health Concerns

Despite their effectiveness, studies in the early 2000s began to reveal a darker side to PFAS. These compounds, as scientists discovered, were not only environmentally persistent but also bioaccumulative, meaning they build up in the human body over time. Alarmingly, research began linking PFAS exposure to a host of health issues, including cancer, hormone disruption, and liver damage, among others.

For firefighters, the risk was twofold. Not only were they exposed to PFAS through AFFFs, but they were also in constant contact with PFAS-treated gear. Sweat, heat, and the rigors of the job could potentially accelerate the leaching of these chemicals, increasing the risk of absorption through the skin.

The Tides of Change

Armed with growing evidence of the hazards posed by PFAS, environmental groups, health advocates, and even concerned professionals within the firefighting community began pushing for change. Their efforts have led to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States and other international bodies intensifying the scrutiny on PFAS use and initiating steps to limit their environmental and health impacts.

Several U.S. states have started phasing out PFAS in firefighting foam, and there's a growing call for the development of safer, PFAS-free alternatives for both AFFFs and firefighter gear. Manufacturers, responding to this demand, have begun exploring protective fabrics that offer heat resistance and durability without the toxic legacy of PFAS.


The history of PFAS in firefighting gear is a cautionary tale of innovation with unforeseen consequences. What began as a breakthrough in safety has evolved into a health and environmental quandary. Today, the firefighting community, regulators, and manufacturers stand at a crossroads. The path forward requires balancing the immediate safety provided by PFAS-laden equipment with the long-term health of our firefighters and the planet. This journey necessitates innovation, regulation, and above all, the courage to ignite change where it matters most.

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